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Choose an appliance and click on a component to find out what it looks like and briefly what it does.
Washing Machine   |
Washer Drier   |
Dishwasher   |
Refrigeration   |
Drying   |
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The Information given here is a generalization and not for any one Make or Model. Neither is it intended to be a comprehensive breakdown of all the parts in the component, rather just a short overview of what the main function of it is and very briefly how it works, to give you a better understanding of what may have caused your machine to breakdown. We have also listed a few of the more common faults attributed to each component, purely as a starting place in locating the possible cause of the breakdown. It is useful to know what your washing machine is supposed to be doing when it breaks down, so you know what area to be looking in (Every good engineer will know what the next step for the wash cycle would be) and therefore narrow the search field for the fault. I have included in all my manuals a short rundown on how the wash cycle works. For those that have no idea click this LINK

These photos are purely for illustration purposes only and may bare no resemblance to the components on your appliance.
Each photo has either a (View Video) link or a (Locate supplier) link under it. The videos were made by me but the Locate Supplier is just for a quick reference to find the part and is not necessarily the cheapest or best supplier for that component but it will give you a starting point.

 
To return to the top of the page click on the red arrow by Component Name    
WASHING MACHINE
Component Name (and short description) Some Attributed Faults Appearance (Varies from one model to another)

  CONTROL MODULE
(Washing Machine)
This is the most complex part of any machine and is pre-programmed with the functions of the appliance it is designed for. Because of its complexity it is very delicate and should be handled with care, or in the case of a novice not handled at all. Although it controls most of the functions on a machine it is not very often the cause of a problem, so other areas should be examined first.

 

 
 Control Module
  • No Motor Action
  • No Heater
  • Machine Dead
  • Most faults can be attributed to it

 

 

Locate Supplier

  EXTERNAL BEARING FRAME
(Washing Machine)
Some washing machines with metal outer containers have an external bearing assembly frame which can take the form of an X of a Y. The drum bearings are located in the centre of this frame which itself is attached to the container by bolts at the end of each of the arms. Replacing the bearings in these units is far easier than in a drum where in most cases you are working in a confined area. The main thing to watch for when removing these units is not to damage the container face where the water seal fits or you will get a leak.

 

 
Bearing Frame

  • Noisey (Loose fixings)
  • Unstable drum (Loose shaft)
  • Leak (Damaged gunmetal seal bearing)

 

 

View Video

  DRUM LIFTER
(Washing Machine)
Drum Lifters or paddles are located inside the inner drum of a washing machine and are in a number of cases non-mechanical, static objects, but nonetheless perform several functions essential to the washing process. Firstly, they agitate the water and detergent to help it dissolve and foam. Secondly, as the name suggests, they ‘lift’ the washing whilst the drum is rotating, allowing water and air to pass underneath. Thirdly, they act as beater bars, beating the clothes during a wash for more efficient removal of dirt. Some are removable and can be taken out to gain access between the inner drum and container, which is useful for retrieving items of washing which may have found its way between them.

 

 
 Drum Lifter:

  • Torn washing (If lifter comes loose)

 

 

Locate Supplier

  DRUM SPIDER (Drum Support, Drum Carrier, Tripod)
(Washing Machine)
The Drum Spider is a three or four-legged metal casting, mounted directly onto the back of the Drum by means of bolts, rivets or screws located at the ends of the legs. There is a central steel shaft protruding from the centre of the Drum Spider, and this shaft is located through the water seal and Drum Bearings mounted in the back wall of the Tub. This shaft can rotate freely inside the Drum Bearings, providing the axel around which the Drum spins. The Drum Bearings take the weight of the Drum Spider, and the Drum Spider takes the weight of the Drum.

 

 
 Drum Spider

  • Noisey (Loose fixings)
  • Unstable drum (Loose shaft)
  • Leak (Damaged gunmetal seal bearing)

 

 

Locate Supplier

  PULLEY WHEEL
(Washing Machine)
The Pulley Wheel is located directly behind the back of the Tub. The shaft of the Drum Spider passes out through a hole in the back wall of the Tub, and through a hole in the centre of the Pulley Wheel. The Pulley Wheel is locked tight to the Drum Spider shaft, and the Drum Spider bolted fast to the back of the Drum, so if the Pulley Wheel turns, so does the Drum. A rubberised Belt is looped tightly around the Pulley Wheel. The Belt is also looped around the Motor Armature. When the Motor is activated, the Motor Armature turns the Belt, the Belt turns the Pulley Wheel, and the Pulley Wheel turns the Drum.

 

   
Pulley Wheel:

  • Can cause a rhythmic clicking noise as it spins
  • The arms on some thinner wheels are prone to break

 

 

Locate Supplier

  SUMP FILTER
(Washing Machine)
The Drum Filter is primarily to protect the Drain Pump from becoming blocked with small objects. When water enters the Tub, it runs down into the Sump, and then into the Drain Pump. To prevent the pump from jamming because of foreign objects that may get left in with the wash load a filter is introduced into the system which resides between the drum and the pump. The one in the picture is located in the sump housing and is a bit more complex than a conventional plain filter, it consists of the filter cage a ball and a top cover. the cage section is the filter and the ball is to prevent soap powder from being washed into the sump as the machine fills up, the top cover is to prevent the ball coming out but allowing the water into the sump.

 

   
 Sump Filter

  • Will Not Spin
  • Door Lock not releasing
  • Will not empty

 

 

View Video

  PRESSURE CHAMBER
(Washing Machine)
The Pressure chamber varies in appearance from one model or make to another, but they are all situated on the lower part of the outer container either front, rear or under it and they are connected to the pressure switch by means of a thin hose. Air is trapped in the chamber as the machine fills with water and is forced up the hose, (the more water the greater the pressure) until the pressure inside the hose triggers the switch and so turns off the fill valve. The chamber in this photo is attached to the sump.

 

   
 Pressure chamber

  • Overfilling
  • Will wash but Not Spin
  • Door Lock not releasing
  • Will go straight into wash without any water
  • Heater comes on without any water

 

 

View Video

  PRESSURE SWITCH
(Washing Machine)
The pressure switch controls the fill valves, and in some cases will prevent the motor from going into spin. It operates via an internal diaphragm which triggers one or more switches (depending on the type of pressure switch). This diaphragm is controlled by the Pressure Chamber and the small bore hose connecting both. On a multi-switch unit, the operating switch is selected by an external control, i.e. Half Load button.

 

 
 Pressure Switch
  • Overfilling
  • Intermittent Over or Under Filling
  • Fill Valves Dead

 

 

view video

  FILL VALVES
(Washing Machine)
The Fill valves, or (solenoid valves) allow water into the machine via a diaphragm which is held closed by the external water pressure on top of it, but when the solenoid is energised it breaks the seal of the diaphragm and allows water to pass, then the water pressure passing under the diaphragm keeps it open, until the power is turned off from the solenoid and an internal spring closes the diaphragm

 

 
 Solenoid Valves
  • No Water
  • Drum Fills When Power Off

 

 

view video

  DOOR SWITCH
(Washing Machine)
Door switches or (interlocks) come in different shapes and forms but for the most part they work either by the conventional press switch mechanism, operated when the door is closed, this normally incorporates some kind of pressure valve assembly, to hold the door locked while there is water in the drum, or via a bimetallic strip inside that heats up when an electrical charge is past through it, causing it to bend and so operate a toggle switch mechanism. On this type of door lock there is normally a few minutes delay before the mechanism releases, because it takes a short time for the bimetal strip to cool down.

 

 
 Door Interlock
  • Machine will not start
  • Door will not open

 

 

view video

  TIMER
(Washing Machine)
The timer is basically just a series of switches that operate at set times, it has a small electric motor on the end which turns gears connected to internal cams, it is these cams that operate the switches. It feeds from the control module which is the brain of any machine.

 

 
 Timer

  • No Motor
  • No Heater
  • Erratic Drum Action
  • Spin Faults
  • Machine Dead

 

 

Locate Supplier

  SPIN MODULE
(Washing Machine)
(Where Fitted) This module controls the speed at which the motor spins, it receives information via the tacho generator on the rear of the motor and accordingly regulates itís speed.

 

 

 Spin Module

  • No Motor Action

 

 

Locate Supplier

  HEATER THERMAL CUT-OUT
(Washing Machine)
Some heaters are fitted with an internal cut out, this device registers if the element gets too hot and blows, just like a fuse, these cut outs are not re settable and are a safety feature which should never be over ridden or ignored. The heater in this photo incorporates a thermostat as well

 

 
 Heater & Cut-out

  • No Heater
  • Machine Stops Washing
  • Poor Wash Results

 

 

view video

  HEATER GUARD
(Washing Machine)
A heater guard is fitted on the end of a washing machine heater element to prevent it from vibrating upwards and hitting on the drum as it turns, and it does this by hooking under a moulded ledge inside the main outer container. Not all manufacturers use this means of keeping the heaters stable but it is widely used within the Hotpoint, Creda and Indesit ranges of washing machines.

 

 
 Heater Guard

  • Noisey
  • Heater dislodged
  • Container damaged
  • Leaks

 

 

Locate Supplier

  TACHO GENERATOR
(Washing Machine)
The short version is the "Tacho Generator" is a slightly off set carbon magnet inside a field coil,which is located on the rear of the motor. This sends information to the module, which regulates the speed of the motor.If the magnet comes loose or is damaged it would cause the motor to behave erratically. The tacho comes as part of the motor and is not sold as a seperate useable component.

 

 
Tacho:
  • Motor Spins Constantly
  • Distribute Speed Wrong
  • Erratic Spin Speed
  • Machine bangs when it spins

 

 


  SOAP DISPENSER
(Washing Machine)
The function of the dispenser is to hold the powder until needed, then to flush it into the tub. This is done by using one or more fill valves, which send water into it washing the powder out. Dispensers come in different types and can have as many as three valves connected to them. The older types have Hot & Cold valves but the newer machines are cold fill only.

 

 
Soap Dispenser
  • Leaks
  • Not using all the powder
  • Not dispensing all the fabric conditioner

 

 

Locate Supplier

  PUMP
(Washing Machine)
The pump is situated under the washing machine either at the front or the rear of the cabinet and its function is to evacuate the drum of water. Although quite robust for its size it doesn't take too much to stop it from working, blockages being the main cause for concern, although even a cotton bud or elastic band can prevent the impellor from turning.

 

 
Washing Machine Pump

  • No pump out
  • Noisy
  • Leaking

 

 


View Video

  PECKER ASSEMBLY
(Washing Machine)
The Pecker is a small pivoting arm which hits on the belt when the door lever is activated. The Pecker Assembly is the whole mechanism which incorporates the pecker. There are various different styles of pecker assemblies and they are not always situated on the motor. They work by forming a bridge between the pivot point of the arm and a point on the motor shaft or belt, if the motor is revolving the pecker is pushed off and the bridge is not formed, whereby the cable from the interlock is slake and the door latch is not operated. Preventing the door being opened when the motor is running.

 

 
Pecker Assembly
  • Door not opening
  • Door lever loose
  •  

 

 


View Video

  CARBON BRUSHES
(Washing Machine)
Carbon brushes are the means of getting electric current into the moving part of an electric motor, the (Armature). The brushes rub on the copper strips on the armature (commutators)which are attached to lengths of copper wire specially wound around it. This causes a magnetic field which is opposite to that produced by the main windings of the motor body. In this way the armature rotates within the motor.

Brushes are made of carbon so they wear down and can be easily replaced rather than the commutators getting worn down which would mean replacing the motor.

 

 
Brushes :

  • No motor action
  • Machine stopped
  • Burning smell
  • Poor wash

 

 


View Video

  THERMOSTAT
(Washing Machine)
Thermostats come in different sizes and temperature settings. They are in all appliances that need to register or manipulate temperatures, whether it be water or air, and are of three main types. The normal one just switches off when a preset temperature is reached and back on when the temperature drops, (or in the case of refrigeration increases.) This is called a cycling stat The second is a re-settable stat that switches off when the heat parameter exceeds its preset limit. This type of safety stat has to be manually switched back on, normally by pressing a button in the centre of the unit. The third type is a one shot stat that trips when the preset temperature level is exceeded. This type cannot be reset and must be replaced. All thermostats are a safety feature and should not be bypassed, to do so could cause the appliance to overheat and catch fire.

 

 
Thermostats:

  • Machine does not reach temperature
  • Water gets too hot
  • Program sticks in wash

 

 

Locate Supplier

  THERMISTOR
(Washing Machine)
Thermistors are a newer version of the thermostat but work in a slightly different way. It is possible to get a more precise temperature reading by using a thermistor because it uses electrical resistance rather than a bimetallic strip. These are also found in most appliances that need to register temperature changes, but do not have the one shot or re-settable options that the thermostat have. As with the thermostat they come in different shapes and sizes, and can be located in a varying array of places within the appliance.

 

 
Thermistor:

  • Water boiling
  • Machine stopped
  • Washing not clean

 

 

Locate Supplier

  BEARINGS
(Washing Machine)
Every washing machine has a set of 2 bearings and in almost all cases a water seal, these allow the inner drum to rotate within the outer container, but how they are situated inside or onto the container can vary from one model to another, therefore replacing the bearings can be as straight forward as removing an X frame on the rear of the container to being as complex as completely removing the container and stripping it down. However there are models of washing machine where it's not possible to change the bearings because the container and inner drum come as a one piece unit construction, denying access to the bearings or inner drum.

 

 
Bearings:

  • Machine noisy on spin
  • Drum up & down movment
  • Brown stain on the floor behind machine
  • Leaking
  • Belt keeps coming off
  • Grease marks on washing

 

 


View Video (Ariston bearings)

View Video (WMA / WF bearings)

View Video (WM bearings)

  EEPROM
(Washing Machine)
The eeprom Stands for (ELECTRICAL ERASABLE PROGRAMMABLE READ-ONLY MEMORY)and is a memory chip that holds information essential to the running of the appliance. The epprom that comes with the machine is soldered into the module and cannot be easily removed, so normally requires a new module to be fitted at the same time. It is possible to buy a pre programmed eeprom and fit it yourself, however if you are not conversant with this technology it may be safer to get an engineer with the required equipment to fit and reload all relevant information into the new eeprom. {Normally information that is loaded into the eeprom is downloaded from a manufacturers web link via a computer terminal which is connected to the machine}

 

 
Eeprom:

  • Any fault will show an error code

 

 

Locate Supplier

  DOOR SEAL
(Washing Machine)
The door seal links the front of the cabinet via the door opening with the outer container, and it's made of a rubbery type of latex material which is both flexible to withstand continuous movement plus hard wearing to accommodate both constant friction and temperature changes. There is a small drain hole at the base of the seal which allows any water that may get trapped in the folds of it after the wash has finished to drain back into the drum. Should any other holes appear in the seal these would cause a leak whereby the seal would need replacing.

 

 
Door Seal:

  • Leaking

 

 


View Video
WASHER DRYER
Component Name (and short description) Some Attributed Faults Appearance (Varies from one model to another)

  DOOR SEAL
(Washer Dryer)
The door seal on a washer dryer is basically the same as that of a conventional washing machine, with the exception of the air ducting at the top which is attached to the dryer heater chamber. Not all washer dryer door seals have this ducting tube, some just have a cutaway section at the top which is fastened to the heater chamber in some way allowing the hot air from the dryer heater to enter the drum.

 

 
Door Seal:

  • Leaking

 

 

Locate Supplier

  CONDENSER
(Washer Dryer)
The Condenser on a washer dryer works by having a trickle of cold water running down the inside, while the moist hot air is passed through it via the fan motor. The cold water converts the moisture in the air flow back to water which is then pumped out by way of the outlet hose.

 

 
Condenser:

  • Water leaks
  • Noisy

 

 

Locate Supplier

  FAN MOTOR
(Washer Dryer)
The fan motor circulates air in the drum and passes it over the heater/s; these are located in a box section on the top of the drum and connected to the condenser. The dry hot air picks up moisture from the clothing as it passes over it and is forced up through the condenser, where much of the moisture is converted back to water again.

 

 
Fan Motor:

  • Noisy
  • Not Drying

 

 

Locate Supplier

  DRYER HEATER
(Washer Dryer)
The only function of the dryer heaters is to provide heat for the air flow into the drum from the fan motor. There are normally two thermostats controlling the temperature of these heaters, the first is a cycling thermostat and the second is a one shot (over heat) thermostat. This thermostat should never ever be bypassed.

 

 
Dryer Heater:

  • No Heat
  • Not Drying
  • Takes too long to dry
  • Burning smell

 

 

Locate Supplier
DISHWASHER
Component Name (and short description) Some Attributed Faults Appearance (Varies from one model to another)

  Door switch/latch
(Dishwasher)
The door switch on a dishwasher sits within a latch mechanism which in turn is situated behind the fascia panel at the top of the door. It’s usually just a micro switch that when depressed activates and when released de-activates. The latch mechanism provides the means for this action to take place, with the aid of a striker bar attached to the inside edge of the cabinet. When the door is closed the striker bar pushes a spring loaded, hooked toggle lever on the latch assembly which flips over and presses down on the switch button. When the door is opened the hook on the lever catches into an opening in the striker bar and pulls it back, releasing the button on the switch.

 

 
Door switch/Latch:
  • No power to machine
  • Door wont close
  • Door wont open

 

 


View Video

  SPRAY ARMS
(Dishwasher)
Dishwasher spray arms are the two rotating appendages inside the tub. Water is forced through small angled holes along there length and this causes them to rotate. Water from the top spray arm is directed downward while the jets from the lower arm are directed upwards. Each arm rotates within a coupling of some kind; an appendage on the lower arm usually locates onto another which is attached to the sump, in this way water from the circulation pump can be directed into the arm and out through the spray holes. A similar method is employed on the upper spray arm although the manner in which it is attached or supported is dependent on the manufacture and model, but water is directed into the upper arm via a system of internal pipes.

 

 
Spray Arms:
  • Items coming out smeary
  • Not washing properly

 

 

Locate Supplier

  FLOAT SWITCH
(Dishwasher)
Most dishwashers now incorporate a float switch assembly on the base of the machine which consists of a polystyrene disc or block resting under a lever which is attached to a micro switch. The whole assembly is located in a pan or tray or if the machine has a plastic moulded base it will have its own little compartment there. The purpose of the switch is to detect any water leak from the machine or its pipe work, it does this by catching the water in the pan/tray or base and because the polystyrene is so light it floats on the water and razes the arm on the switch, witch turns the pump on and every thing else off. The point is that on newer dishwashers you should not get water leaking from the machine onto the floor under it and if you do then it will probably be a blocked or partially blocked stand pipe that is throwing the waste water back up as its being pumped out.

 

 
Float switch:
  • Pump comes on in middle of wash
  • Machine stops washing
  • Machine wont start
  • Machine wont fill

 

 

Locate Supplier

  HALF LOAD VALVE
(Dishwasher)
The half load solenoid valve controls a shut off flap which prevents water from entering one of the spray arms and thereby reducing the wash, and is located on the circulation pump. This valve is usually operated via a manual half load switch on the fascia panel which the user selects prior to the wash programme starting.

 

 
Half load valve:
  • Poor wash
  • No half load wash

 

 

Locate Supplier

  THERMOSTAT-(TUB)
(Dishwasher)
A thermostat can be of use in any appliance which needs to register or manipulate temperature. There are a few different types of thermostats used in dishwashers, some have multiple temperature settings, whilst others have just one. The thermostat in this picture is one which screws to the underside of the wash tub and regulates the temperature through the metal of the tub casing. This one is a single temperature type which is activated by the control settings i.e the wash temperature the appliance is set to

 

 
Thermostat-(Tub):
  • Items coming out smeary
  • Not washing properly

 

 

Locate Supplier

  THERMOSTAT-(HEATER)
(Dishwasher)
The thermostat shown in this picture only resides in dishwashers with an internal heater because it fits through a hole in the base of the tub and is held in place via a water tight grommet, with the metal section touching the heater from underneath. In this case the on/off functions of the thermostat are dictated by the direct heat of the heater itself.

 

 
Thermostat-(Heater):
  • Water not hot
  • Not washing properly
  • Not drying

 

 

Locate Supplier

  THERMISTOR
(Dishwasher)
The thermistor is the more advanced successor to the thermostat. By employing the use of electrical resistance instead of a bimetallic strip, thermistor's are able to produce a more precise temperature reading. Thermistor's can be found in most appliances which require temperature regulation. In this instance the thermistor would tell the module when the correct temperature has been reached and the machine would advance onto the next stage of the wash cycle. The thermistor on a dishwasher can be located anywhere depending on the manufacturer’s specifications for that particular model or the function for that thermistor, but they are usually against the lining of the tub or door, some units are attached under the tub whilst others are fitted inside the lining of the door.

 

 
Thermistor:
  • Water not hot
  • Not washing properly
  • Poor drying

 

 

Locate Supplier

  CAPACITOR
(Dishwasher)
The capacitor is a form of battery which is charged by the mains power when the machine is turned on, but unlike a battery which discharges power gradually a capacitor discharges all its current at one time and in this case it’s used to give a boost charge into a motor and power up the start windings, just to get the Rotor turning, at which point the normal set of run windings take over and the motor continues to run. The rating of a capacitor is measured in microfarads and is governed by the relevant size of motor windings it has to energize therefore a small motor would need a smaller rated capacitor than a larger more powerful motor.

 

 
Capacitor:
  • Wash Motor wont start
  • Motor just hums
  • Poor wash

 

 

Locate Supplier

  FILTERS
(Dishwasher)
The filters on a dishwasher are accessible through the floor of the main tank. There are usually at least 2 levels of mesh filter and at least the one grill type filter which constitutes the top covering of the sump. The finer filters are made up of one large a basket type, which is cylinder shaped, and this filters out lumps of food. And then a very fine mesh filter which removes any tiny particles. The filters are important because they protect the impellor in the Circulation Pump, as well as the pressure chamber and discharge pump from getting blocked or jammed. The filters should all be removed and cleaned out regularly.

 

 
Filters:
  • Items coming out smeary
  • Not washing properly
  • Not pumping out
  • Smelling

 

 

Locate Supplier

  SOAP DISPENSER
(Dishwasher)
The soap dispenser on a dishwasher also dispenses rinse aid which is an essential part of the drying process as it prevents water marks on glass and porcelain, as well as leaving cutlery nice and shiny. Some soap dispensers are mechanically operated whilst others are electrically operated via the controlled module.

 

 
Soap Dispenser:
  • No soap in dishwasher
  • Items coming out smeary
  • Not washing properly

 

 


View Video

  FLOW THROUGH HEATERS
(Dishwasher)
The heaters on dishwashers vary in shape, size, location and how they function. Some appliances have different shaped heaters in the base of the tub that heats the contents of the tub in one go, while others have a plastic or metal type heater box under the tub that heats the water as it passes through. Some heaters are coil shaped whilst others resemble oven elements. These differences depend on the manufacturer and model of the dishwasher. The heater illustrated here is the flow through type

 

 
Flow Through Heater:
  • Not drying
  • Items coming out smeary
  • Not washing properly

 

 


View Video

  CONTROL MODULE
(Dishwasher)
As its name suggests this module controls the functions of the dishwasher on a electronic machine and replaces the timer as used on the manual selector type of machines. This is the most complex part of any machine and is pre-programmed with the functions of the appliance it is designed for. Because of its complexity it is very delicate and should be handled with care, or in the case of a novice not handled at all. Although it controls most of the functions on a machine it is not very often the cause of a problem, so other areas should be examined first.

 

 
Control Module:
  • Poor Wash
  • No Heat
  • No Dry

 

 

Locate Supplier

  METERING TANK
(Dishwasher)
Basically the metering tank is water reservoir for the dishwasher which holds a set amount of water in a number of different compartments. (That is the basic description). How it dispenses the water is somewhat more involving because not all of the water is destined for the wash tub, some is used to refill the salt compartment after the crystals have been flushed through with the saline solution. These tanks usually have a float switch which turns the power to the fill valve on and off.

 

 
Metering Tank
  • Too much water
  • Not enough water
  • leaks

 

 


Locate Supplier

  CIRCULATION MOTOR & PUMP HOUSING
(Dishwasher)
Although these two items come separately, when there is a leak in the pump housing you will normally have to replace the motor as well, because only on the rare occasion can you change one without the other. The motor turns a large impellor in the pump housing which draws the water from the sump and forces it through the spray arms via internal pipes, these motors are normally capacitor or relay start motors and can be connected up the wrong way, in this case you would get very poor wash results.

 

 
Circulation Motor &Pump

  • Noisy
  • Poor Wash
  • Leaking
  • No Wash at all

 

 

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    SOFTENER UNIT
(Dishwasher)
The softener Unit is a container with a sealed compartment for crystals, which soften the water as it passes through them and a compartment that has to be topped up with salt. The salt is used to clean the crystals, and this is done automatically every wash by flushing a saline solution through them. If there is no salt in the container the crystals become clogged and are unable to function, resulting in poor wash results because the powder cannot work properly in un-softened water.

 

 
Softener Unit
  • Poor Wash results
  • Salty taste on dishes

 

 

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  DISCHARGE PUMP
(Dishwasher)
A lot of the motors on these pumps are the same as those on a washing machine pump, but the housing (the bit that covers the impellor) differs in its connections. Nearly all have a built in non return flap, to prevent water re-entering the sump when the pump shuts off. Like the Circulation pump these draw there water supply from the sump, an area that should be protected by a filter to prevent foreign objects from entering either pump.

 

 
Discharge Pump:

  • Not Empty
  • Leaking

 

 


View Video

  Turbidity Sensor
(Dishwasher)
Turbidity sensors measure the turbidity (how dirty the water is) in dishwashers, and can help save energy and water by reducing the length of time a wash cycle need be on to get the dishes to a set level of cleanliness. i.e. (Lightly soiled dishes need less wash time than heavily soiled dishes). It works by light being transmitted through the water between two points, and the strength of that light beam is measured, (the cleaner the water the stronger the beam.) this information is fed back to the module which takes the appropriate action. These sensors are usually sited in the or close to the heater box, and in the water flow.

 

 
Turbidity Sensor:

  • Longer wash time
  • Incorrect Turbidity readings

 

 

Locate Supplier

  High Pressure Sensor
(Dishwasher)
The high pressure sensor is located between the wash motor and lower spray arm. It senses the alteration in water pressure via a membrane which is connected to a micro switch. The thinking behind it is that if the water pressure drops below a certain level then the machine will not be able to wash properly. Therefore if the pressure does drop, a series of rectifying procedures take place with the aim of removing the cause of the reduced water pressure.

 

 
High Pressure Sensor:

  • Poor wash results
  • Blockage

 

 

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  Water Turbine
(Dishwasher)
The water turbine used on some of the dishwashers is designed to eliminate the dependency on the pressure switch for filling. The unit is fitted in the fill line of the machine and works by the rotation of the turbine as water flows over it. A fixed reed switch registers the number of rotations the turbine makes by counting the passing of a magnet fitted to the impeller. It can also act as an over flow preventative because it counts and regulates the amount of water entering the machine. The pressure switch will still be used if there is a fault registered with the turbine and a turbine fault will display at the end of the cycle.

 

 
Water Turbine:

  • Fill Fault
  • Blockage

 

 

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  DISHWASHER DOOR HINGE
(Dishwasher)
The diswasher hinge is connected to a spring which counter balances the weight of the door, so that when it is only half way open it stays there, other wise it would fall open as soon as the catch was released, causing it to buckle under its own weight.

 

 
Dishwasher Door Hinge
  • Door drops down
  • Squeaking or grating noise
  • Door lopsided
  • Leaking from door

 

 

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REFRIGERATION
Component Name (and short description) Some Attributed Faults Appearance (Varies from one model to another)

  COMPRESSOR.
Refrigeration)

The compressor is basically a pump with the sole purpose of pushing gas around the pipe work of a refrigerator in order to make it cold.No system repaires are possible without the proper equipment,if a compressor fault is suspected, call in an engineer.

 

 
Compressor.
  • Not getting cold
  • Compressor running too hot
  • Condenser not warm

 

 

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  THERMOSTAT
(Refrigeration)
The thermostat in a refrigerator controls the inside temperature of the fridge by switching the compressor on and off and it achieves this via the liquid filled capillary tube attached to a diaphragm at one end and a phial reservoir at the other, which is held onto the evaporator plate with the aid of a bracket or clip. As the evaporator plate gets cold the liquid in the phial retracts and the diaphragm at the other end of the capillary tube closes according to the settings indicated by where the control knob was set at, and the compressor is switched off. As the evaporator plate becomes less cold the contents of the phial have the opposite reaction and switch the compressor back on again.

 

 
Thermostat.
  • Not getting cold
  • Compressor not running
  • Condenser not warm
  • Evaporator not cold

 

 

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  DISSIPATER.
(Refrigeration)
The dissipater is a dish like tray which sits on top of the compressor motor, it catches the water when the fridge defrosts, and the heat from the compressor motor evaporates it.

 

 
Not Applicable

 

 

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     CONDENSER.
(Refrigeration)
Gas is pumped around the condenser and in doing so becomes very hot as it gets more compressed, so much so that it turns into liquid and is finally forced into the evaporator. On upright machines the condenser is normally located at the rear of the unit on the outside.

 

 
Condenser
  • Blockage
  • Leak

 

 

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     EVAPORATOR.
(Refrigeration)
When the hot liquid form of the gas enters the evaporator it is released into a larger area and released from it's confines it returns back to gas, which cools very quickly. It is this cooling process that makes the fridge or freezer cold. Fridge evaporators are flat and sit inside at the rear of the unit, whilst the type illustrated are more commonly found in FrostFree units behind the inside pannel.

 

 
Evaporator
  • Blockage
  • Leak
  • Loud cracking sound(Ice Bridge)

 

 

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  PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient)
(Refrigeration)
The PCT is used as an alternative start device for compressors to previously used relayís. The main property of the PTC is that it only allows current to pass when it is cold but this passage of current also causes a rise in temperature which alters the resistance, it is the higher resistance that in turn reduces the voltage to the start windings. Therefore by placing it in the start winding circuit, it will initially start the motor running until the heat produced by the current passing through it causes the temperature to rise and restrict the voltage which cuts out the start windings and lets the motor continue on just the run windings.

 

 
P.T.C
  • Compressor does not start
  • Compressor hums and tries to start
  • Compressor overload tripping

 

 

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TUMBLE DRYER
Component Name (and short description) Some Attributed Faults Appearance (Varies from one model to another)

  CONDENSING TUMBLE DRYER FILTER
(Tumble Dryer)
The large filter in a condenser tumble dryer is located at the base of the machine and its function is, to have the hot moist air from the tub pulled through it via the cooling impellor which turns it back into water where it can be pumped into a reservoir tank that can be empted at a later time. These filters tend to get forgotten about but they do need cleaning from time to time which is best done by removing it from the machine and running water through it.

 

 
Tumble Drier Filter
  • Poor drying

 

 

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  TUMBLE DRYER MOTOR
(Tumble Dryer)
Tumble drier motors are induction type (which means they are either capacitor or relay start. Not brushes). This cuts down the possibility of them catching fire due to the dust and fluff emitted from the drier when in use. However this dust is still the main cause of bearing failure. Because they are induction motors they can be wired up the wrong way in which case they would revolve in the wrong direction.unfortunately the motors on some of the condenser type dryers are very hard to change and require a lot of the machine to be striped down just to gain access

 

 
Tumble Drier Motor
  • No Tumble
  • Noisy
  • Burning smell

 

 

view video 1
view video 2

  MOTOR BEARINGS
(Tumble Dryer)
When the motor bearings go in a tumble dryer the motor becomes very noisy and eventually either stops or catches fire because the windings become over loaded. It is always cheaper to replace the bearings in an electric motor rather than buying a new motor...however it's not always possible and it's never easier but there are a few motors which are relatively easy to work on and so accomplish this task without too much hassle. One of them is the motor used in the Hotpoint range of tumble dryers which also cover some Creda, Indesit & Ariston models. The motor and bearings are shown in the picture, and there is an accompanying video link on how to replace these bearings as well.

 

 

Motor Bearings:

  • Noisy (greating)
  • Slow drum action
  • Burning smell 

 

 

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  JOCKEY PULLEY
(Tumble Dryer)
The jockey pulley is designed to maintain a constant tension on the belt as the drum rotates, for reversing tumble driers there are two pulleys (one for each direction) these are usually connected by a spring whilst the base of the pulley arm is hooked into the cabinet or is connected to the motor in some way.

 

 

Jockey Pulley

  • Noisy (squeaking)
  • Belt off (no drum action)  

 

 

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  REAR BEARING
(Tumble Dryer)
The bearing on the rear of a conventional tumble drier, not only supports the weight of the drum, but also absorb the downward pressure incurred from the drive belt tension, allowing the drum to rotate freely. In most cases it consists of just one moving part which is the drum shaft

 

 

Rear Bearing

  • Noisy (greating)
  • Uneven drum action 

 

 

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  COOLING IMPELLOR
(Tumble Dryer)
The cooling impellor on a condensing tumble dryer draws the moist warm air over the main filter which converts it back into water so it can be either collected in a base reservoir or pumped into a top fitting reservoir. The original impellors were not very robust and tended to distort which caused vibration through the motor and housing assembly, but the newer versions have improved.

 

 
Cooling Impellor
  • Vibration
  • Poor Drying
  • Noisy

 

 

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  TUMBLE DRYER HEATER
(Tumble Dryer)
The heaters on tumble driers differ from make to make and even model to model. They can be located in the front of the drum or at the rear of the cabinet, but they are all controlled by thermostats or thermistors that switch the power on or off when pre-selected temperatures have been attained. Air is passed over the heater by means of a fan, usually attached to the main motor, and circulates with the washing inside the tub, finally leaving via the outlet hose/opening.

 

 
Tumble Drier Heater
  • No Heat
  • Poor Drying
  • Burning Smell

 

 

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COOKING
Component Name (and short description) Some Attributed Faults Appearance (Varies from one model to another)

     FAN-MOTOR (OVEN)
(Cooking)
The fan is there to assist in a faster cooking process by boosting the circulation of heat around the oven compartment. There is one large fan inside the oven and a much smaller one out side (to keep the motor cool). If this fan becomes loose or unattached the motor over heats and stops.

 

 
Oven Motor & Fan:
  • Poor cooking results
  • Noisy

 

 

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     COOLING FAN
(Cooking)
The cooling fan on a cooker is designed to blow cold air through the ducting on top of the main oven, to prevent the cavity between the oven and hob getting too hot. Another function of these fans is to extract the fumes from inside the oven via the exhaust vent at the rear. These fans are not present on all cookers, but on the ones that do have them, the fan is controlled via a thermostat that switches it on when the cavity temperature exceeds a certain level, and keeps it running until the temperature is once again below that level, even if the oven is switched off. The air flow exits the oven cavity via a grill over the top of the oven door and can sometimes be felt as a warm breeze when it’s running. One of the side affects of this fan is to cool the control knobs slightly.

 

 
Cooling fan:
  • Steam inside main oven
  • Noisy
  • Uneven cooking

 

 

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  OVEN DOOR SWITCH
(Cooking)
The door switch is located at the side of the oven and has a small plunger protruding through the cabinet, which is pushed in when the door is closed. The function of this switch is to turn the grill off should the door be accidentally closed while it is in operation, because the grill element glows red and can cause a fire if fat splashes on it within a confined space.

 

 
  Door Switch
  • No Grill

 

 

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  CIRCULAR ELEMENT
(Cooking)
The circular heating element for a fan assisted oven is located at the rear, and is the only oven element you can see that glows red. It is protected by a lining plate with a grill section for air circulation. The fan blade is located in the center of the element which circulates the warm air throughout the oven compartment.

 

 
  Circular Element
  • Oven not working

 

 

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  SPIRAL HOB RING ELEMENT
(Cooking)
The flat coil elements are also known as surface coil elements or spiral elements and are the easiest hob element to test and change if required. Much like a grill element they can glow red hot when fully switched on. They sit on a tripod of thin metal which rests on the hob over a hole slightly larger in diameter than the element itself. As there are four elements there are four holes in the hob top and four tripods. The hob top on cookers which use this type of element are hinged and they lift up at the back so the tray section below it can be cleaned. There is usually some type of arm or lever that can be extended to prop the hob up and hold it in the tilted position. This access also allows for easy removal or testing of the elements.

 

 
  Spiral Element:
  • Not getting hot
  • Taking too long to cook
  • Blowing fuse

 

 

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  CERAMIC HOB ELEMENT
(Cooking)

The electric element used on a ceramic hob, consists of a cut out fibrous molding which contains an electric filament which encircles the inside of it. This filament varies according to the manufacturer and rating of the element. Some use a spiral filament like the ones used in electric fires while others use a sort of corrugated filament, and some even incorporate a halogen filament into the assembly as well. The hob element is fitted to the under side of the glass ceramic hob with the filaments facing up, to direct the heat onto the cooking utensils. This heat is transferred through the ceramic glass and into the pot, where it heats and cooks the contents.

 

 
  Ceramic hotplate
  • Not getting hot
  • Taking too long to cook
  • Blowing fuse

 

 

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  SOLID HOTPLATE ELEMENT
(Cooking)
The solid hotplate is fitted on a variety of different models and makes of cooker. It is more robust in its construction than some elements but prone to seepage from over flows on the hob top, so cleaning up any spillage as it happens would be a wise action. They consist of a number of different elements that operate according to the setting of the control switch and have a built in thermostat to regulate the temperature

 

 
Solid Hotplate Element
  • Not getting hot
  • Taking too long to cook
  • Blowing fuse

 

 

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  TOP OVEN & GRILL ELEMENT
(Cooking)
The grill elements in domestic cookers vary in shape and design, by far the most common is made from a metal outer skin surrounding an inner heat resistant compound which is none conductive, and it’s this compound which is shielding the electric heating filament. The filament heats up and transfers the temperature into the none conductive ceramic type compound surrounding it, because this compound is tightly packed inside the element the heat is absorbed by the outer metal casing and depending on the type of usage of the element it will either just get hot but stay black, as in the case of a top oven element or in the case of being use for a grill it gets very hot and glows red.
As shown in this photo each function has a separate element. That is one for the grill and another for the top oven, and they each have their own controls

 

 
Top Oven & Grill Element:
  • Not getting hot
  • Taking too long to cook
  • Blowing fuse

 

 

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  OVEN THERMOSTAT
(Cooking)
The thermostat in a cooker oven usually combines three sections together. The main part is the switch mechanism that slots into the rear of the cam shaft in a cooker control switch. Leading off the switch is a very fine capillary tube and at the other end of it there is the phial. The phial is sited in the oven compartment usually near the top of it, either on the back or side panels, and it’s held in place by clips or brackets. They use to contain mercury but now use a form of oil to measure temperature increases.
The capillary tube connects the switch and phial together and carries the oil from the phial to a diaphragm inside the switch, as the oil heats up it expands and the pressure activates the switch contacts, which turn off the power to the heater element. When the phial cools down the contacts remake and the cycle starts again.
As shown in this photo each function has a separate element. That is one for the grill and another for the top oven, and they each have their own controls

 

 
Oven Thermostat:
  • Not getting hot
  • Taking too long to cook
  • Blowing fuse

 

 

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  REGULATOR
(Cooking)
The regulator on a cooker is a control switch that allows the user to alter heat settings via a control knob to whichever element it’s connected to. In much the same way as a water tap can reduce or increase the flow of water.
By incorporating a bimetallic strip within the circuitry of the switch mechanism, it’s possible to adjust the temperature setting at which the circuit breaker contacts separate and turn the element off. In this way a reasonably even temperature can be maintained.

 

 
 Regulator:
  • Oven Not getting hot
  • Blowing fuse

 

 


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  HOTPLATE CONTROL SWITCH
(Cooking)
The control switch consists of a rotating cam shaft that opens or closes one or more contacts at any one time, by turning it manually it allows for a number of elements on the hotplate to be energized at the same time and therefore increase the temperature of the plate. It does not have any means of temperature control, this is taken care of within the hotplate itself.

 

 
  Hotplate control switch
  • Not getting hot
  • Blowing fuse

 

 


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  COOKER TIMER
(Cooking)
Most cookers that have a clock installed also have the facility to use it as a timer to give an audible warning when a preset time period has expired, such as three minutes for a boiled egg. The digital timers on some cookers also have the ability to set the oven to come on or switch off at a pre set time, so although you may not be in the house the oven will switch on at whatever time has been programmed into it and the contents will start cooking, switching itself off after the set period of time you selected. In this way the meal could be almost cooked by the time you get in.

 

 
  Cooker Timer:
  • Oven not working

 

 

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  DROP DOWN OVEN DOOR HINGE
(Cooking)
The oven door hinge is designed to allow for easy removal and refitting of the drop down oven door.
However this is not always the case due to the amount of fat and grease which builds up from normal cooking use. Once the door is fully open there is either a lever (as with the one in the diagram) a disc that revolves to lock the main hooked arm in place or some other means to lock the arm. When both arms have been locked the door will come off with a little upward lift whilst gripping it by each side. There are a few video examples of how to remove an oven door and additional videos on removing the hinges.

 

 
  Oven Door Hinge
  • Door drops
  • Does not close properly
  • Squeaks
  • Is lopsided
  • Poor cooking results

 

 

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HEATING
Component Name (and short description) Some Attributed Faults Appearance (Varies from one model to another)

  INPUT THERMOSTAT
(Heating)
The input thermostat regulates the amount of charge (heat) that is retained in the blocks overnight, In some cases it is pre set according to external temperatures but other input thermostats allow the user to select the rate at which the blocks should be charged, normally on a 1-9 scale setting.

 

   
  Input Thermostat
  • Heater gets cold too quickly
  • Heater is far too hot
  • Thermal link melted

 

 

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  OUTPUT THERMOSTAT
(Heating)
The output thermostat (Room temp stat), allows the user to regulate the temperature of the heater to suit. This is accomplished by the connecting arm which opens and closes a vent flap on top of the heater unit, allowing more or less heat to escape. Once set the flap will regulate itself, that is to say, as the blocks get colder during the evening the flap will open more to maintain the set temperature.

 

   
  Output Thermostat
  • Heater too cold
  • Heater too hot
  • Thermal link melted

 

 

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  THERMAL LINK
(Heating)
The thermal link is a type of heat sensitive white metal which melts at or above a given temperature. It is between two copper pins that allow connection to the power input supply and the input thermostat. If the heater exceeds a give temperature the link will melt and cut the power supply to the heater, affectively turning the appliance off. Because there are a number of different heater ratings the thermal links also vary in heat resistance, this is identified by the colour on the side of the link. If replacing a link be sure to get the correct one for your appliance. Never ever replace a link with a piece of fuse wire or copper wire. This hyper link will take you to a web page that has an excellent chart on link ratings and relevant colours. To access the website click on the 'Locate supplier link'. under the picture. 

 

   
  Thermal Link
  • Heater not working

 

 

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  HEATER ELEMENT
(Heating)
Replacing the heater element in a storage heater is real quite easy; unfortunately it also involves the dismantling of the heater unit which is more time consuming than hard. The problem that normally arises from this procedure is when the inner panel is removed to gain access to the charge blocks, on older appliances the insulation is very fragile and if not handled with the utmost care it will fall apart and will need replacing. The easiest way to detect if one of the elements is faulty is just to feel the cabinet itself, if one side is colder than the other then you have a defective element.

 

 
      Heater Element
  • No Heat
  • Heater gets cold too quick

 

 

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